Scientific Research Material English 1

Relativity is, without any doubt, one of the most well-known scientific theories of the 20th century, but how well can we see observe it in our daily lives? Here are 5 ways you can see Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in real life:

Global Positioning System

In order for your car’s GPS navigation to work as precisely as it does, satellites in earth’s orbit have to take some relativistic effects into account even though satellites aren’t moving at anything near to the speed of light, they are still going pretty fast. The satellites are also transferring signals to ground stations on Earth’s surface. These ground stations (and the GPS component fixed in your car) are all undergoing higher accelerations due to gravity than the satellites in orbit.

To get that pinpoint precision, the satellites use clocks that are precise to a few billionths of a second. As each satellite is 12,600 miles (almost 20,300 kilometers) above Earth and travels at about 6,000 miles per hour (10,000 km/h), there’s an awesome relativistic time dilation that tacks on almost 4 microseconds every day. After adding in the effects of gravity and the number goes up to nearly 7 microseconds. That’s about 7,000 nanoseconds. The variance is very real: if no relativistic effects were occurred, a GPS unit that tells you it’s a half mile (0.8 km) to the next destination would be about 5 miles (8 km) off after simply one day.

Gold’s Yellow Color

Many metals are glittery as the electrons in the atoms jump from diverse energy levels, or also known “orbitals.” Some photons that smash the metal get absorbed and re-discharged, at a longer wavelength. Most detectable light, however, just gets reflected.

Gold is quite a heavy atom, so the inner electrons are stirring fast enough that the relativistic mass increase is noteworthy, along with the length contraction. As a consequence, the electrons are rotating around the nucleus in smaller paths, with extra momentum. Electrons in the inner orbitals transfer energy that is closer to the energy of outer electrons, and the wavelengths that get absorbed and reproduced quite are longer.

Longer wavelengths of light mean that a little of the visible light that would typically just be redirected gets absorbed, and that light is in the blue end of the spectrum. White light is a combination of all the colors of the rainbow, but in case of gold, when light gets absorbed and redirected the wavelengths are generally longer. That means the combination of light waves we see tends to have seemingly less blue and violet in it. This is the reason gold look yellowish in color since yellow, orange and red light is a lengthier wavelength than blue.

Gold Doesn’t Corrode Easily

The relativistic effect on gold’s electrons is also accountable for one more property of gold that the metal doesn’t rust or react with anything else quite easily. Gold has just one electron in its external shell, but it still is not as responsive or reactive as calcium or lithium. As an alternative, the electrons in gold, being “heavier”, are all detained closer to the atomic nucleus. This is the reason that the outermost electron isn’t expected to be in a place where it can react with whatsoever at all — it’s just as probable as to be amid its corresponding electrons that are close to the nucleus.

Mercury Is a Liquid

Just like gold, mercury is also a heavy atom, with electrons seized close to the nucleus because of their speed and consequential mass upsurge. With mercury, the bonds between its atoms are weak, so mercury liquefies at lower temperatures and is normally a liquid when we see it.

Your Old TV

Few years ago maximum number of televisions and monitors had cathode ray tube (CRT) screens. A cathode ray tube works by firing electrons at a phosphor exterior with a huge magnet. Each electron creates a lighted pixel when it smashes the back of the screen. The electrons fired out to create the picture move at up to 30 percent the speed of light. Relativistic effects are obvious, and when makers made the magnets, they certainly had to take those effects into account.

Conspiracy theorists can’t seem to get enough of the mysterious images taken by NASA’s Mars Curiosity Rover. In their newest ‘discovery’, they claim to have found the Star Destroyer from Star Wars on Mars. UFO Sightings supporter Scott Waring wrote “I found this anomaly in the latest Curiosity Rover photo. The black object looks like a crashed UFO,” According to him the ‘craft’ is merely about 2.5 to 3 metres across, ‘so it possibly only held a few travelers.’ The imaginary Star Destroyers were the warships used mostly by the Empire in Star Wars, and were many times bigger than the ‘craft’ Waring found on Mars.

Waring also wrote ‘There is only one photo of the ship. The rover usually takes many of each area, but not this one. Perhaps tomorrow it will take more,’ This isn’t the first time Hollywood hits have favored alien hunters. Just a few weeks ago, a group of Conspiracy theorists said they had found a mysterious ‘facehugger crab‘ on the red planet.
Again scientists have called this a case of pareidolia.

Seth Shostak, director of the Centre for SETI Research said this is the psychological reaction to seeing faces and other important and everyday stuffs in unplanned stimulus. It is a type of apophenia, which is when people see shapes or connections in random, unrelated data.

NASA’s Dawn spacecraft has zoomed in for a closer look mysterious geography of the dwarf planet Ceres. Since sliding to a height of 900 miles in mid-August, its vision has become three times sharper. That has permitted researchers to zoom in on a 4-mile-high mountain in Ceres’ southern hemisphere. The cone-shaped peak, which is nearly as tall as Mt. McKinley (the highest mountain in North America), has shimmering sides that are coated with some kind of reflective material, maybe ice. The mountain lies in a pretty flat region, and researchers aren’t sure how it got there.

Marc Rayman, Dawn’s chief engineer and mission director, located at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California said, in a statement “Dawn is performing flawlessly in this new orbit as it conducts its ambitious exploration. The spacecraft’s view is now three times as sharp as in its previous mapping orbit, revealing exciting new details of this intriguing dwarf planet.” Dawn will carry on examining Ceres in this new close-up sight until December, when it’ll close in to 230 miles from Ceres’ surface, which will optimistically help to shed some light on this and other oddly shimmering spots on the dwarf planets exterior.

Matter that falls into a black hole is gone forever, right? Well not quite, says Stephen Hawking. Stephen Hawking told this at a public lecture in Stockholm, Sweden, just yesterday. He also said “If you feel you are in a black hole, don’t give up. There’s a way out.” You possibly know that black holes are stars that have shrunken under their own strong gravity, generating gravitational forces so powerful that even light can’t escape. Anything that falls inside is believed to be torn apart by the immense gravity, never to been seen or heard from again ever. What you may not know is that physicists have been arguing for 40 years about what happens to the information about the physical state of those objects once they fall in.

According to quantum mechanics this information cannot be destroyed, but Einstein’s theory general relativity says it has to be – that’s why this disagreement is recognized as the information paradox. Now according to Hawking this information never makes it inside the black hole in the first place. Hawking, just yesterday, said “I propose that the information is stored not in the interior of the black hole as one might expect, but on its boundary, the event horizon,”

Hawking is proposing that the information about particles fleeting through is interpreted into a type of hologram – a 2D depiction of a 3D object – that sits on the surface of the event horizon.

Hawking also said “The idea is the super translations are a hologram of the ingoing particles.

Thus they contain all the information that would otherwise be lost.” So the main question is how does that help something escape from the immense gravity of black hole? In the 1970s Hawking presented the idea of Hawking radiation – photons produced by black holes due to quantum fluctuations. In the beginning he said that this radiation carried no information from inside the black hole, but in 2004 he changed his mind and proposed that it could be probable for information to get out.

One thig to be mentioned here is that how this escape of information works is still a mystery, but Hawking now thinks he’s solved it. His new theory is that Hawking radiation can carry some of the information stowed on the event horizon as it is produced, providing a way for it to escape. But don’t think getting a message from inside, he said. “The information about ingoing particles is returned, but in a chaotic and useless form. This resolves the information paradox. For all practical purposes, the information is lost.”

Sabine Hossenfelder of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics in Stockholm, who was present in Hawking’s lecture, said “He is saying that the information is there twice already from the very beginning, so it’s never destroyed in the black hole to begin with,” she says. “At least that’s what I understood.”

More explanation is expected later today when one of Hawking’s coworkers Malcom Perry expands on the notion, and Hawking and his associates say they will also issue a paper on the work in upcoming month, but it’s obvious he is aiming for the idea that black holes are inescapable. It’s even probable information could escape into parallel universes, hawking told the audience yesterday.

Hawking said “The message of this lecture is that black holes ain’t as black as they are painted. They are not the eternal prisons they were once thought. Things can get out of a black hole both on the outside and possibly come out in another universe.”

Supersymmetry is generally reflected to be one of the most encouraging theories for outspreading our understanding of the Universe.  In the video below, Dr. Don Lincoln clarifies what Supersymmetry really is.

Mathematics is, without any doubt, one of the only areas of knowledge that can accurately be defined as “true,” because its theorems are result of pure logic. And yet, at the same time, those theorems are often exceptionally extraordinary and counter-intuitive.

“The Most Beautiful Equation”

Stanford mathematician Keith Devlin the called Euler’s formula “The Most Beautiful Equation.” But why is Euler’s formula so magnificent? First, the letter in the equation “e” signifies an irrational number (with endless digits) that begins 2.71828… Discovered in the situation of nonstop compounded interest, it directs the rate of exponential growth, from that of a tiny insect populations to the accumulation of curiosity to radioactive decay. In math, the number shows some very astonishing properties, for example, to use math expressions, being equal to the sum of the inverse of all factorials from 0 to infinity. Indeed, the constant “e” pervades math, acting apparently from nowhere in an immense number of important equations.

Next, “i” signifies the so-called “imaginary number”: the square root of negative 1 also known as “iota”. It is thus called because, in actuality, there is no such number which can be multiplied by itself to yield a negative number (and so negative numbers have no actual square roots). But in mathematics, there are numerous circumstances where one is required to take the square root of a negative. The letter “i” is hence used as a kind of stand-in to mark places where this was done. Next thing in the equation is Pi and almost everybody knows about it, the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. Pi is one of the best-loved and most remarkable numbers in mathematics. Like “e,” it seems to rapidly rise in a huge number of mathematics and physics formulas.

Lastly, the constant “e” raised to the power of the iota “i” multiplied by pi is equal to -1. And, as seen in Euler’s equation, addition of 1 to that gives 0. It appears nearly unbelievable that all these weird numbers — and even one that isn’t genuine — would chain so easily. But, as a matter of fact, it’s a proven fact.

Wall Math

Though they might be decorated with an endless variation of flourishes, mathematically speaking, there’s just a limited number of separate geometric patterns. All Escher paintings, wallpapers, tile designs and certainly all two-dimensional, iterating arrangements of shapes can be recognized as fit in to one or another of the so-called “wallpaper groups.” And there are only 17 wallpapers group.

Prime Spirals

Since prime numbers are indivisible (except by digit 1 and themselves), and because all other numbers can be inscribed as multiples of them, they are frequently viewed as the “atoms” of the math world. Regardless of their importance, the scattering of prime numbers amongst the integers is still a mystery. There is no outline dictating which numbers will be prime or how far apart consecutive primes will be.

The apparent randomness of the primes creates the pattern found in “Ulam spirals” very odd indeed. Stanislaw Ulam in 1963 observed an odd arrangement while sketching in his notebook during a presentation: When integers are written in a spiral, prime numbers permanently appear to fall along diagonal lines. This in itself wasn’t so astonishing, because all prime numbers excluding the number 2 are odd, and crosswise lines in integer spirals are consecutively odd and even. Much more surprising was the leaning of prime numbers to lie on few diagonals more than others — and this occurs regardless of whether you start with 1 in the mid, or any other number.

Even when you zoom out to a quite bigger scale, as in the scheme of hundreds of numbers below, you can see perfect diagonal lines of primes (black dots), with some lines stronger than others. There are mathematical estimations as to why this prime outline arises, but nothing has been verified.

Random Patterns

Oddly, random data isn’t really random at all. In a given list of numbers signifying anything from stock prices to town or a city populations to the elevations of buildings to the lengths of rivers, about 30 percent of the numbers will start with the digit 1. Less of them will start with 2, even less will start with 3, and so on, till only one number in twenty will start with a 9. The larger the data set, and the more orders of magnitude it extents, the more intensely this form appears.

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