In early 1900’s, the British physicist Lord Kelvin claimed: “There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement.” But in less than three decades, quantum mechanics and Einstein’s theory of relativity had revolutionized physics. Currently, no physicist would ever think of claiming that our knowledge of physical universe is near completion. Because each new finding appears to unravel a Pandora’s box of even greater, even deeper physics questions. So here are my choices for the most deep and open questions of all.
What is dark energy?
No matter how scientists manipulate the numbers, the universe basically doesn’t add up. Even though gravity is pulling inward on space, it just keeps growing outward faster and faster. To provide a solid explanation for this, astrophysicists have suggested an unseen agent that overpowers gravity by pushing space-time apart. Astrophysicists call it dark energy. In the most broadly recognized model of dark energy, it is a “cosmological constant”: a characteristic property of space itself, which has “negative pressure” pushing the fabric of space-time apart. As space expands, more space is produced, and as the more space is produced, more dark energy is created. Centered on the observed rate of expansion, astrophysicists know that the totality of all the dark energy must make up more than 70 percent of the entire contents of the cosmos. But so far no one knows how to look for it.
Is there any sort of order in chaos?
So far, physicists can’t really crack the set of equations that defines the behavior of fluids, from water to air to all other liquids and gases. Actually, it isn’t even acknowledged whether a general solution of the so-called Navier-Stokes equations even exists, or, if there is a solution, whether it explains behavior of fluids everywhere, or comprises characteristically incomprehensible points called singularities. As a result, the nature of chaos is not well understood. Physicists and mathematicians still wonder, is the climate purely difficult to predict, or fundamentally unpredictable? Does turbulence exceed mathematical explanation, or does it all make sense when you use the right math?
Is string theory correct?
When physicists assume all the basic particles are essentially one-dimensional loops, or “strings,” each of which beats at a dissimilar frequency, physics gets much cooler and easier to understand. String theory permits physicists to reunite the laws governing tiny particles, called quantum mechanics, with the laws governing massive things in space, called general relativity, and to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into a particular framework. But the problem is, string theory is only useful in a universe with 10 or 11 dimensions: three large spatial ones, six or seven compressed spatial ones, and a time dimension. The compressed spatial dimensions — along with the vibrating strings themselves — are almost a billionth of a trillionth of the size of an atomic nucleus. There’s no imaginable way to discover anything that small, and so there’s no acknowledged method to experimentally confirm or invalidate string theory.
Why is there more matter than antimatter?
The question of why there happens to me more matter than its oppositely-spinning and oppositely-charged, antimatter, is essentially a question of why anything happen to exists at all. One assumes the universe would treat matter and antimatter equally, and that is why, right after the Big Bang, equal amounts of matter and antimatter would have been produced. But if that had happened, there would have been a total extermination of both: Protons would have negated with antiprotons, similarly electrons with anti-electrons (positrons) and neutrons with antineutrons, and so on, leaving a cloudy sea of photons in a matterless vastness. For some unknown reason, there was extra matter that didn’t get crushed, and here we are. For this, there is no recognized explanation so far.
Are there any parallel universes?
Astrophysical data recommends that space-time could be “flat,” rather than curved, and thus that it goes on endlessly. If so, then the area we can see (which we call as “the universe”) is just one bit in an enormously large “quilted multiverse.” At the same time, the regulations of quantum mechanics claim that there are only a limited number of thinkable particle formations within each cosmic patch (10^10^122 separate possibilities). So, with an infinite number of cosmic patches, the particle arrangements inside them are forced to repeat — infinitely several times over. This means there are infinitely numerous parallel universes: cosmic regions precisely the same as ours (comprising someone exactly like you), as well as patches that vary by just one particle’s position, patches that vary by only two particles’ positions, and so on down to patches that are entirely different from ours. Again there is still no solid evidence for the presence of parallel universes.
Physicists have created a wormhole that channels a magnetic field through space. Study co-author Jordi Prat-Camps, who is also a doctoral candidate in physics at the Autonomous University of Barcelona in Spain, said “This device can transmit the magnetic field from one point in space to another point, through a path that is magnetically invisible. From a magnetic point of view, this device acts like a wormhole, as if the magnetic field was transferred through an extra special dimension.” The notion of a wormhole was originated from Albert Einstein’s theories. In 1935, Einstein and his partner Nathan Rosen comprehended that the general theory of relativity permitted the presence of bridges that could link two dissimilar points in space-time.
Hypothetically these Wormholes, also known as Einstein-Rosen bridges, could permit something to tunnel rapidly between great distances (however the tunnels in this concept are very tiny, so normally wouldn’t fit a space traveler). Up to now, no one has found proof that space-time wormholes really occur. This new wormhole isn’t a space-time wormhole as such, but is instead an understanding of an innovative “invisibility cloak” first suggested in 2007 in the journal Physical Review Letters. This kind of wormhole would hide electromagnetic waves from sight from the outside. The actual difficulty was, to make the technique work for light required materials that are very impractical and tough to work with, Prat said.
As research continued, scientists discovered that the materials to create a magnetic wormhole already exist and are much easier to acquire. Especially, superconductors, which can transmit high levels of current, or charged particles, eject magnetic field lines from their centers, basically bending or twisting these lines. This fundamentally permits the magnetic field to do something different from its adjacent 3D environment, which is the first step in hiding the disruption in a magnetic field.
|Here, a picture of how the wormhole may work. Image Credit: ordi Prat-Camps and Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona|
So the group of scientists designed a three-layer object, comprising of two concentric spheres with an inner spiral-cylinder. The inner layer basically transferred a magnetic field from one end to the other, while the other two covers acted to hide the field’s presence.
Generally, magnetic field lines discharge from a definite place and decay over time, but the existence of the magnetic field should be noticeable from points all around it. But, the new magnetic wormhole hides the magnetic field and funnels it from one side of the tube to another without being detected, seeming to pop out of nowhere on the other side of the cylinder, reported the scientists on Aug. 20 in the journal Scientific Reports.
Prat told Live Science “From a magnetic point of view, you have the magnetic field from the magnet disappearing at one end of the wormhole and appearing again at the other end of the wormhole,”
So What Are It’s Applications
There’s currently no way to recognize if similar magnetic wormholes prowl in space, but this technology could have uses on Earth, Prat said. For example, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machines use a huge magnet and oblige people to be in a strongly bounded central tube for diagnostic imaging.
But if a device could transmit a magnetic field from one point to the other, it would be probable to take images of the body with the heavy-duty magnet located far away, freeing people from the enclosed location of an MRI machine, Prat said.
Prat said “If you want to apply this to medical techniques or medical equipment, for sure you will be interested in directing toward any given direction. A spherical shape is not the most practical geometry.”
There is an interesting story behind naming the farthest known dwarf planet Pluto. An 11-year-old girl from Oxford, England is accountable for naming Pluto. She recommended the name to her grandfather after being motivated by the name of the Roman god of the underworld. Lowell Observatory accepted the proposal and believed it fit. The Disney cartoon character Pluto first acted the same year the name Pluto was proposed for the dwarf planet—but the dog was called Rover at the time. While voting for the name of the new dwarf planet, “Pluto” was the common choice.
August 28, 201511:06:08 PM
Home » About Universe » Astronauts » Astronomy » Info » Infographics » Missions » NASA » Physics » Planets » Scientists » Space Exploration » Technology » This Awesome 20-km-high ‘space elevator’ can revolutionise how astronauts get into space
A massive “space elevator” tower standing nearly 20 kilometres (12.4 miles) high has been patented in the America and the England by a Canadian corporation that’s looking for change about how astronauts get into earth’s orbit. Thoth Technology, which specializes in technology linked to space travel and defense, has been working on ThothX Tower: a separate, partly inflated structure with a runway at the top that can help space shuttles to liftoff directly into Earth’s stratosphere. The notion is that by launching space shuttle into the earth’s orbit from this altitude – which is 24 times taller than the world’s present tallest building, Dubai’s Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates – as much as 30 percent of the energy used in a an ordinary rocket launch could be saved, apparently making it easier, inexpensive and more environmentally friendly to get cosmonauts into space. As Quine puts it in the patent:
|Image Tecnology: Thoth Technology|
*Traditionally, regions above 50 km in altitude can only be accessed using rocketry, where mass is expelled at high velocity in order to achieve thrust in the opposite direction. This process is extremely inefficient as rockets must counter the gravitational force during the flight by carrying mass in the form of propellant and must overcome atmospheric drag. In contrast, if a payload is hauled to space or near space along an elevator system, the work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag.*
Brendan Quine, the inventor of the space elevator concept, in a press release said“Astronauts would ascend to 20 km by electrical elevator. From the top of the tower, space planes will launch in a single stage to orbit, returning to the top of the tower for refuelling and reflight,”
While the idea of using such super-high towers for astronomical dedications isn’t new (sci-fi author Arthur C Clarke recommended the idea back in the 1970s, as perceived by the patent), we’ve never had a resources of building such a huge structure that could maintain its own weight and bear high winds.
The ThothX Tower would get around this by feature of its partly inflated design, with each section of the tower using pneumatically pressurized cells jam-packed with air or some other Gas. This could deliver a lightweight, maneuverable form, with the complete structure stabilized by gyroscopes and active control equipment, ensuring that the tower rests in a straight, perpendicular position as much as possible.
Caroline Roberts, Thoth president and CEO, said “Landing on a barge at sea level is a great demonstration, but landing at 12 miles [19.3 km] above sea level will make space flight more like taking a passenger jet,”
In addition to providing an higher launch area and landing stand for space exploration, the space tower’s creators say the structure could be used for any number of pursuits, comprising wind-energy production, communications, and even tourism.
As encouraging as the space elevator appears, Thoth Technology hasn’t yet confirmed any solid plans to really build this thing – and it’s likely there’d be noteworthy directing hurdles to overcome if that’s the company’s plan. We’ll be observing.
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n asteroid or anything like that is not going to hit Earth in September. Lately on the Internet, numerous stories have been saying that, between September 15 to 28 this year, an asteroid four kilometers (2.5 miles) wide will knockout Puerto Rico, destroying much of the Atlantic and Gulf shores of the U.S. and Mexico, and also Central and South America. The theory appears to have initiated from Reverend Efrain Rodriguez, who “sent a letter” to NASA in 2010 cautioning of an asteroid impact in 2015. Mainly overlooked at the time, numerous websites and videos have now picked up on the claim and conveyed it as fact. Well there is no such asteroid or comet exists. How do we know this? Well thanks to NASA’s Near-Earth Object (NEO) office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California, we know that there is nothing like that going to happen next month. NASA’s Near-Earth Object is able to track all Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) of a rational size. We know of numerous other PHAs, some that will come near to Earth (but not impact) in the next almost 100 years, but there is basically no noteworthy object that will smash our planet any time soon, particularly not next month.
|Image credit: We’re all going to die one day. Eventually. But not due to an asteroid next month. solarseven/Shutterstock.|
This story of asteroid impact has since gone viral, so much so that NASA has given out a infrequent statement confirming that, no, apocalypse is not around the corner, something the agency is normally hate to do. Paul Chodas, manager of NASA’s NEO office, said in the statement. “There is no scientific basis – not one shred of evidence – that an asteroid or any other celestial object will impact Earth on those dates. If there were any object large enough to do that type of destruction in September, we would have seen something of it by now.”
The actual danger of asteroids and comets to Earth, however, is very real. Many researchers have been demanding for a better Earth defense and detection system, to make sure we can find and terminate any possibly world-ending asteroids in future. Certainly, some small rocks, like the Chelyabinsk meteor in February 2013, do succeed to trick the radar. But something as wide as four kilometers is basically too big not to be seen, and there’s nothing in the close future that poses a real danger. According to NASA the chance of a large asteroid striking Earth in the next 100 years at 0.01%